Gallery of examples

The figures show examples of applying some of the methods mentioned in Table II, with summary information in each case.

Integrity test of concrete piles using the sonic method

Diagram showing the elastic wave propagation in a pile without defects and in a pile with a defect  
Testing concrete piles in a bridge foundation
Four concrete piles test records    



Detection and evaluation of reinforcement corrosion

General view of a structure with corroded reinforcement  
Assessment of the electric resistivity of concrete
Plot of corrosion intensity results against electric potential.  
View of the reinforcement of a wall in course of repair, after removal of surface concrete. The bar closer to the wall face shows deep corrosion, due to chloride ingress.

Load test of a reinforced concrete floor in a building

Tested areas.  
Measuring system, showing also the cracking pattern
Measuring movement at a crack  
Load system
Load-deflection diagrams at some of the points    



Defect detection using the “impact-echo” method

Typical display of a displacement record and corresponding spectrum (solid frequency)  
Quality control of a reinforcement concrete column.
Defect detection in a column at an overpass jobsite.    



Reinforcement corrosion in a chemically aggressive environment, in a fertilizer plant

Corrosion in a beam. Notice that concrete has become so poor, it can removed by hand scratching  
Details of concrete and reinforcement deterioration in a slab.
Details of concrete and reinforcement deterioration in a slab.  
Petrografic analysis of same concrete. Cracks in the cement past, cutting through the aggregate. Aggregates are marked “A”, voids with “B” and the cement paste with “C”. Lower side of the photo: 1,7 mm
Photomicrography with fluorescent light. Microcracks and large cracks can be seen in the cement paste, cutting through aggregate “A”. Lower side of the photo: 4 mm.  
Photomicrography with crossed nicols and gypsum filter. Alteration of the cement paste (“B”) can be observed, caused, probably, by salt attack. Aggregates are market with “A”. Lower side of the photo: 4 mm.

Acess media

Sketch of quick acess platform for the inspection, diagnostics and repair of the underside of bridges and overpasses.  
The platform during set up.
Inspection of na overpass  
Rebar detection and cover assessment
Videographic inspection of a holow structure  
Collecting concrete powder for chloride content evaluation
Pull-out test.  
Core sampling at Vasco da Gama bridge, Lisbon.